Peaceful Uses of Space Act
To ensure the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space, the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This act may be cited as the Peaceful Uses of Space Act of 2002
SECTION 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PEACEFUL USES OF SPACE.
Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind. Congress also reaffirms the International Treaty on Principles Governing Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies which was ratified by the United States in 1967, thus becoming part of the body of law of the United States.
SECTION 3. BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT.
The President shall -
(1) implement a ban on space-based weapons of the United States and the use of weapons of the United States to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit; and
(2) immediately order the termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States.
SECTION 4. INDEPENDENT PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION TO SET GUIDELINES FOR PEACEFUL USES OF SPACE.
The President shall -
(1) establish an INDEPENDENT commission to review existing and proposed peaceful uses of space, to ensure advisability of missions in terms of benefit to scientific knowledge, and to ensure that they are consistent with the provisions of the above mentioned Act of 1958 and Treaty of 1967.
(2) set guidelines and constraints consistent with the above Act and Treaty to ensure environmental responsibility and compliance by the military and by all corporations involved in space exploration.
SECTION 5. INTERNATIONAL TREATY BANNING SPACE-BASED WEAPONS AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT.
The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing an international treaty banning space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit. This will be in addition to the ban on weapons of mass destruction, and weapons based on celestial bodies already prohibited in the International Treaty of 1967, and should be in all other aspects consistent with that Treaty.
SECTION 6. INTERNATIONAL INDEPENDENT PANEL TO ENSURE COOPERATION WITH OTHER COUNTRIES IN SPACE EXPLORATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY.
The United States envoy to the United Nations shall advocate that an Independent UN panel be convened to ensure the cooperation of all countries interested in space exploration, that there be careful oversight as to the need or desirability of proposed projects, that the benefits outweigh the risks, and that full responsibility be assumed in regard to environmental impact of planned space launches.
SECTION 7. BAN USE OF RTG'S AND NUCLEAR REACTORS IN SPACE
Because of the inherent risk of radioactive contamination of the atmosphere from failed launches or orbital problems, there shall be no further use of radioisotopic thermal generators (RTG's) or nuclear reactors in space, either by the United States, or by launches from other countries.
SECTION 8. RESTRICTIONS ON USE OF PUBLIC MONIES FOR SPACE EXPLORATION PROJECTS
Requests for taxpayer subsidies for corporations' exploration of space should be funneled through the Independent Presidential Commission before approval.
SECTION 9. REPORT.
The President shall submit to Congress no later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 6 months thereafter, a report on
(1) the implementation of the ban on space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit required by Section 3; and
(2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the treaty described in Section 5
(3) compliance with prohibition of use of RTG's or nuclear reactors in space.
SECTION 10. DEFINITIONS.
In this Act:
(1) The term 'space' means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 60 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space.
(2) The terms 'weapon' and 'weapons system'
(A) mean a device capable of any of the following:
(i) Damaging or destroying an object (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by-
(a) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object or person;
(b) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object or person;
(c) directing a source of energy (including molecular or atomic energy, subatomic particle beams, electromagnetic radiation, plasma, or extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation) against that object; or
(d) any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means
(ii) Inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person) -
(a) through the use of any of the means described in clause(i) or subparagraph(B);
(b) through the use of land-based, sea-based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations; or
(3) by expelling chemical or biological agents in the vicinity of a person.
(B) Such terms include exotic weapons systems such as -
(i) electronic, psychotronic, or information weapons;
(iii) high altitude ultra low frequency weapons systems
(iv) plasma, electromagnetic, sonic, or ultrasonic weapons;
(v) laser weapons systems;
(vi) strategic, theater, tactical, or extraterrestrial weapons; and
(vii) chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons.
(C) The term 'exotic weapons systems' includes weapons designed to damage space or natural ecosystems (such as the ionosphere and upper atmosphere) or climate, weather, and tectonic systems with the purpose of inducing damage or destruction upon a target population or region on earth or in space.